ODS 7 AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY
Before we begin to make an assessment of what it means to have access to clean energy, it is important to specify what types of energy exist. We do not intend to make a rigorous analysis, but it is important to mention them in order to determine why Sustainable Development Goal No. 7 becomes relevant.
The types of energy are classified as follows:
Within these, and according to the source from which the energy comes, it is classified as follows:
· Renewable energies: from the sun, wind, and water
· Non-renewable energies: from oil and coal.
Renewable energies are becoming the generation energy sources with the largest source of investment. Factors contributing to these investments include: renewable energies are reaching parity in prices and grid performance, solar and wind energies contribute to grid stability, new technologies are taking advantage of the benefits brought by wind and solar energy.
What is wind energy? Wind energy is a renewable energy source that does not pollute, is inexhaustible and reduces the use of fossil fuels, which are the source of greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming. Wind energy is based on wind.
What is solar energy? It is the energy obtained from the use of electromagnetic radiation from the sun. The solar radiation that reaches the earth is used by humans through different technologies. This energy considerably reduces the carbon footprint, it can heat, something that other energies cannot offer, it is renewable and sustainable energy, it does not require the extraction of materials.
Consumers are increasingly looking for more reliable, economical and environmentally friendly energy sources.
The main wind energy markets are: China, USA, Germany, India, Spain, France, Brazil, UK, Canada.
The main solar energy markets are: China, Japan, Germany, USA, Italy, India and UK.
According to the latest 2022 United Nations SDG report, ODS 7 aims to create universal, sustainable and modern access to energy services and that the population actually has access to electricity.
We highlight the following figures reported as of 2022:
· Electricity access rate increased from 83% in 2010 to 91% in 2020.
· The proportion of the population with access to electricity increased from 1.2 billion in 2010 to 733 million in 2020.
· The proportion of the population with access to clean cooking and technology increased from 3 billion in 2010 to 2.4 billion in 2020.
· The percentage of renewable energy use increased from 16.1% in 2010 to 17.7% in 2019.